Acid capsules, provided by Douglas Laboratories, contain 100 mg of pure
R-lipoic acid. The R-lipoic acid isomer used in this formulation is
provided in a stabilized form as potassium-R-lipoate and does not
contain any S-lipoic acid.
R-Lipoic Acid may be a beneficial dietary supplement for individuals who wish to supplement with lipoic acid.
acid is a nutritional coenzyme that participates in the energy
metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats, with a particular role
in blood glucose disposal. It is also able to scavenge a number of free
radicals. As both a fat and water-soluble, sulfur-containing coenzyme,
lipoic acid functions in the body as part of several multi-enzyme
complexes located in the mitochondria. Lipoic acid is essential for
metabolizing carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, for the conversion of
their energy into ATP.
Two of these enzyme complexes, pyruvate
dehydrogenase (PDH) and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH) are
part of the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle), and as such assume a
central role for general energy production. Another lipoic acid
containing enzyme complex, branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase
(BCKADH), is involved in deriving energy from the branched chain amino
acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine. A related metabolic function of
lipoic acid is its role in blood glucose disposal. This important
coenzyme appears to be necessary for the normal transport of blood
glucose into the cell.
This may be explained by its functions
in the glucose-metabolizing enzymes, PDH and alpha-KGDH, but some
researchers suspect a more direct role in cellular glucose uptake at
the cell membrane. As early as 1959, lipoic acid was suggested to be an
antioxidant, since it could extend the actions of vitamin C in guinea
pigs, and those of vitamin E in rats. It is only recently, however,
that the specific actions of lipoic acid in free radical quenching,
metal chelation, and antioxidant regeneration have been investigated.
cells and tissues are threatened continuously by damage caused by toxic
free radicals and reactive oxygen species (e.g., peroxides) which are
produced during normal oxygen metabolism, and by toxic agents in the
environment. Free radicals, once formed, are capable of disrupting
metabolic function and cell structure. When this occurs, additional
free radicals are produced which, in turn, can result in more extensive
damage to cellular structure and function.
Lipoic acid is
unique among biological antioxidants, because it is soluble in both
water and lipids. This allows it to neutralize free radicals just about
everywhere in the body, inside and outside the cells. Due to its unique
sulfurcontaining structure, lipoic acid can scavenge several types of
free radicals, such as the highly reactive hydroxyl, and singlet oxygen
free radicals. It is also capable of suppressing the generation of free
radicals in the first place, since lipoic acid chelates transition
metals, such as iron and copper.
Because lipoic acid is
involved in so many different antioxidant functions in virtually all
body tissues, it has been called the universal antioxidant. Many lipoic
acid products contain a racemic mixture of both the R and S enantiomers
of lipoic acid. The Renantiomer of lipoic acid is naturally occurring,
and has received special attention as studies indicate it may be better
utilized by the body than a racemic mixture.
Each Capsule Contains:
R-Lipoic Acid ...100mg
(from 250 mg of R-potassium lipoate)
Vitamin C (ascorbyl palmitate) ...5mg
Adults take 1 capsule daily with food or as directed by a physician
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug
Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat
cure, or prevent any diseases.